It’s hard to hang the future on hope. It just seems there’s not much of it now on the horizon, almost. As I wrap up an amazing six week journey through Thailand and Cambodia I return to Canada and my home with good feelings despite some experienced contradictions. Always trying to maintain hope I was given a boost with the indictment of you know who this week for the harm he has caused to society and the environment around the world. But, as always, travelling and meeting fellow human beings along the way, those at times very different from me, always boosts me. For in all my travels, over 60 years to over 100 countries, I have always met so many great people, and have worked with many of them. However, through them, local media, lots of study and my own observations I realize that so many aren’t nearly as healthy, fulfilled and prosperous as I am. Being so lucky to be born in a country like Canada, with great education and various other social programs and still with good health I am privileged beyond imagination. Many with less suffer greatly especially when something like Covid-19, civil unrest or hyper-inflation comes their way. We surely do, though, complain lots in Canada, either forgetting or not understanding the context. There was even a fringe group in Canada a year ago or so who complained to the tops of mountains that we had lost our freedoms by having a Covid-19 vaccine widely promoted. In my thinking they obviously haven’t seen much of the world, understand reality, or been to Cambodia where I’m just returning from, or many other countries on the wrong side of the tracks. The biggest problem now, though, is that real freedoms are continually being lost as many places turn more autocratic and corrupt, with leaders believing they, their families and friends have a right to rule over others without their approval or beneficence. As flawed as our Western democratic systems are, at least we can change our leaders, speak openly, worship as we want, love who we like and aspire towards our own goals.
And then there’s the climate crisis, which is still being battered and slandered in so many places by so many people, again mostly by those who haven’t been outside in years (or outside their safe spaces), or have read a newspaper or watched a global weather report, nor even seen a polar bear. The other day while sitting high up overlooking the beautiful scene of the Gulf of Thailand (see ENDSHOTS) I could hardly believe what I was writing. The scene in front of me was so serene, beautiful, so seemingly plentiful, even infinite, just as I used to think about forest harvesting, sea fishing and oil sands mining in Canada. How could such seemingly small or local acts of exploiting nature actually be detrimental to all? But, year after year, decade after decade, more today than yesterday, the relentless exploitation of nature leaves us now in a world characterized by looming doom. We have climate and biodiversity crises, oceans depleted of fish and piled high with plastics, forests wiped out, species extinctions and some regions already becoming unliveable due to climate heating, bellicose aggression and forced migration. Add to this widespread corruption (even among those we vote for) and mass carelessness accelerating it all.
While I run back to the AC in my hotel room others die of the excesses of climate heating all from exorbitant rising of carbon in the atmosphere, fostered by liars, corporate deception, deceived lackeys and autocrats who only care about the size of their bank accounts. While I can live in a nice home, others live in hovels without water and sanitation. While this boy from northern Saskatchewan got all the education he could handle others are only lucky enough to get 8 poor quality years, at best. While I get all the healthcare I need billions suffer disease and death without.
Such are the contradictions I return with circulating through my neurons, though still infused with tempered hope...all further highlighted and explained in today’s Planetary Health Weekly (#14 of 2023). I hope you’ll read on and be motivated to make positive change wherever you can. Best, david
David Zakus, Editor and Publisher
KEP, CAMBODIA ON THE GULF OF THAILAND
APRIL 2, 2023
IN COMPLETE SOLIDARITY WITH UKRAINE SEEKING PEACE AND VICTORY
"WAR IS AN EPIDEMIC" Famous Ukrainian surgeon, Director of the Kyiv Education District, N. Pirogov (Artist: A. Sidorov) in: "The Way Artists See It" (1994) by A. Grando, founder and director of the Central Museum of Medicine of Ukraine in Kyiv. ISBN
AND WITH THE BRAVE PROTESTERS IN IRAN (AND AFGHANISTAN)
Water Safe Cities - How flooding and drought will impact C40 cities by 2050
Collecting clean water with the help of UKaid
Credit: DFID/Russell Watkins/Flicker
By 2050, more than 7.4 million people living in at-risk areas of the 97 C40 cities will be exposed to riverine flooding annually. People knee-deep in water. Houses flooded. Cars submerged. For many in Africa’s second largest city, Lagos, this is the reality of the rainy season. Rains cause much of the flooding in Nigeria’s economic hub, but the city also sits on the west coast of Africa at the confluence of several rivers, which creates the perfect conditions for a triple flood threat – riverine, coastal and stormwater.
Cities around the world are no strangers to riverine flooding. Venice, São Paulo, Sydney and Kuala Lumpur are just a few examples of cities that have experienced inundation that has brought them to a standstill over the past three years. The five cities with the highest population exposure to riverine flooding are all in South and Southeast Asia. What’s more, the impact on populations in Global South C40 cities will be 10 times that on populations in Global North cities. Urban damages from riverine flooding will also more than treble to US$64bn every year and impact US$136bn of GDP production annually.
By 2050, it will cost C40 cities a combined US$111bn a year to replace the water lost from subsurface levels during drought. By 2050, more than 2,400 hospitals and healthcare facilities in C40 cities could be overwhelmed by flooding. More than 300 energy generation facilities in C40 cities are at risk of flooding by 2050. Cities will have to plan robust emergency response protocols, so that when floods and droughts impact electricity supply or other critical sectors, the city has a back-up plan.
Set More Credible Climate Strategies or Lose our Backing, Investors Tell Chemicals Firms
A new report by Beyond Plastics titled “The New Coal: Plastics and Climate Change” Credit: Melissa Phillip, Staff / Houston Chronicle
A group of investors managing more than $4trn of assets has written to 13 of Europe’s biggest chemicals companies, imploring them to increase their climate ambitions and credibly prove they are cutting emissions rapidly. The IPCC’s Synthesis Report this week reiterated that the world is not on track to limit global warming in line with the Paris Agreement and give the best chance of avoiding the worst physical climate impacts. Instead, we are on course for at least 2.8C of warming. The report did state that action is still possible and advocated for solutions with social, economic, nature and health benefits – but warned that the window for action is rapidly closing and costs will soon start to increase dramatically. The investors state that, while they have seen some companies setting more ambitious climate plans and claiming alignment with 1.5C, this is still the exception rather than the norm. Some plans also lack short and medium-term targets to support long-term visions. The letter expresses concern over whether companies are rapidly cutting emissions after setting targets, with several recording increases in emissions. Also covered in the letter is the need for clearer climate transition plans. Such plans cover how capital expenditure plans contribute to climate objectives. ShareAction has also been putting pressure on European banks, asset managers and financial services giants to increase climate ambitions and actions in 2023.
How a Climate-Smart Forest Economy Could Help Mitigate Climate Change and Its Worst Impacts
Is it time to tap the potential of a climate-smart forest economy? Credit: Unsplash/kazuend
The global population is rising and 1.5 million people move to urban areas each week, creating a massive demand for housing, particularly in developing countries.
Typically, construction contributes to the degradation of the environment through mining and the production of carbon-emitting materials. Still, switching to timber sourced from sustainably managed, climate-smart forests could play an instrumental role in mitigating climate change and its worst impacts.
Building a climate-smart forest economy could protect, maintain and manage forests and enhance their capacity to remove carbon from the atmosphere, among other benefits. A recent study estimates, for instance, that if 90% of the new urban population is housed in newly built urban mid-rise wooden buildings, 106Gt of additional CO2 could be saved by 2100. As a bonus, it could help provide clean water and jobs for rural communities, as described in a recent report by WRI.
There is still time to create a global climate-smart forest economy. Within this decade, we can create a global Climate Smart Forest Future, where forests, forest products and buildings help avert a full-scale climate emergency — a climate-smart future in which, as Sir David Attenborough so inspiringly put it, we “have more forests than any of us have ever known.” Here is a compelling opportunity to maximise the climate benefits of forests by using a systemic approach to create a climate-smart forest economy that unlocks the full climate potential of forests and forest products.
CA wind turbine at Pakefield, Suffolk, England. Credit: John Worrall/Alamy
The UK’s new energy plan unveiled last Thursday is a missed opportunity full of “half-baked, half-hearted” policies that do not go far enough to power Britain’s climate goals, according to green business groups and academics. The 1,000-page strategy has been criticized by many within Britain’s green sectors who fear the country could surrender its leading role in climate action because of the government’s “business as usual” approach to delivering green investments. Environmental groups said the plans – which are expected to form the basis of the government’s revised strategy to meet its net zero ambitions– also risk falling short of meeting legally binding climate targets, which could trigger further court action.
Grant Shapps, the energy and net zero secretary, announced the wide-ranging strategy, which includes support for carbon capture projects, nuclear energy, offshore wind farms, electric vehicles, home heat pumps and hydrogen power. Ana Musat, an executive director at RenewableUK, which represents onshore wind developers, said the plans did “not go far enough to attract the investment we need in the renewable energy sector” amid “global competition for investment in renewable energy projects [which] is fiercer than ever”.
“We need much more than a ‘business as usual’ approach to kickstart investment on the level we need to boost energy security, cut consumer bills and reach net zero,” Musat said. “Without that, we won’t land the UK-wide economic benefits of building up new clean energy supply chains, as they will go elsewhere where the investment environment is more conducive and attractive.” Mark Maslin, a professor of climatology at University College London, said: … “Yet again the UK government has missed the opportunity to radically change the UK energy production and market. This is the time that innovative business-led initiatives are needed.”
Investing in a Pan-African Genome Initiative Would Provide Great Returns for Humanity
Whole-genome sequence analysis of a Pan African set of samples reveals archaic gene flow from an extinct basal population of modern humans into sub-Saharan populations. Credit: Lorente-Galdos et al., 2019/Genome Biology
African genomes carry more variations than European genomes because they have a longer evolutionary history, and thus they offer more insights into potential new therapeutic targets for detecting and treating rare diseases. For millenniums, whenever humanity has faced that which it could not explain, we have invoked magic or witchcraft. If we could not explain it, it could only be supernatural phenomena, perhaps the wrath of unhappy gods or ancestors. Such is the case with rare diseases in African society. Most people do not know what they are or how to explain the “strange” symptoms that occur in those affected by them.
Africa’s health priorities are driven by the Western-centric global health security paradigm that seeks to minimise the infectious disease threat that Africa poses to the West. Consequently, most investment in the African healthcare context goes into pathogen genomics, that is, the analysis of genetic material of disease-causing micro-organisms. So, a critical question is how do we maintain it? One possible solution is to use the African genomic screening muscle in the interpandemic periods to perform population-based human genomic studies for a range of health problems afflicting African society, including rare diseases.
Africa has already been using this genomic muscle for widespread genomic testing for pathogens like HIV, TB and malaria. When the Covid-19 pandemic hit us, that expertise was quickly adapted for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Given that only 5% of rare diseases have a medical intervention and African genomes carry more variations than European genomes because they have a longer evolutionary history, they offer more insights into potential new therapeutic targets for detecting and treating rare diseases. That is why investing in a Pan-African genome initiative would provide great returns. We must advocate increased investment in this important work that would benefit all of humanity, not just Africans.
Top Lawyers Defy Bar to Declare They will not Prosecute Peaceful Climate Protesters
Insulate Britain supporters protesting in London this month.. Credit: Daniel Leal/AFP/Getty Images
Six King's Counsels (KCs) among more than 120 mostly English lawyers to sign pledge not to act for fossil fuel interests
Leading barristers have defied bar rules by signing a declaration saying they will not prosecute peaceful climate protesters or act for companies pursuing fossil fuel projects. They are among more than 120 mostly English lawyers who have signed a declaration vowing to “withhold [their] services in respect of supporting new fossil fuel projects and action against climate protesters exercising their right of peaceful protest”. Writing in the Guardian, Jolyon Maugham KC, the head of the Good Law Project and a key signatory of the declaration, says: “Like big tobacco, the fossil fuel industry has known for decades what its activities mean. They mean the loss of human life and property – which the civil law should prevent but does not.
“The scientific evidence is that global heating, the natural and inevitable consequence of its actions, will cause the deaths of huge numbers of people. The criminal law should punish this but it does not. Nor does the law recognise a crime of ecocide to deter the destruction of the planet. The law works for the fossil fuel industry – but it does not work for us.” Tim Crosland, the director of the environmental law pressure group Plan B, which together with Maugham’s Good Law Project coordinated the declaration, said “behind every new oil and gas deal sits a lawyer getting rich”. “Meanwhile, it’s the ordinary people of this country, taking a stand against this greed and destruction that the British legal system prosecutes and imprisons, jailing them just for talking about the climate crisis and fuel poverty. The rule of law has been turned on its head. Lawyers are responsible. It’s time to take a stand.” The declaration would be proclaimed outside the Royal Courts of Justice in the Strand, London, at 12.30pm next Wednesday, Plan B said.
Inmate Joey Toutsaint after a self-harming incident that left him in need of medical attention. Credit: Correctional Service of Canada
APTN Investigates is taking viewers inside corrections facilities to see what’s really behind the overrepresentation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada’s justice system. While Indigenous Peoples make up just under five per cent of the Canadian population, they now account for more than 32% of all incarcerated inmates. In this special four-part series, the APTN Investigates team brings viewers with them behind the walls of some of Canada’s most notorious prisons. Inside Corrections looks to understand why Indigenous Peoples are the fastest-growing prison population in the country. The CCTV footage was taken by CSC staff after a use of force incident or after Toutsaint exhibited self-harming behaviour. The footage, while graphic, offers insight into how the CSC responds to prisoners who are experiencing mental health challenges as a result of prolonged isolation. Indigenous inmates continue to be overrepresented at all levels of Canada’s correctional system.
Isolation, self-harm and suicide are all more likely to occur with Indigenous inmates, according to a report released by the Correctional Investigator of Canada, Ivan Zinger. The impact has a detrimental impact on each Indigenous person who is serving a federal sentence, he added.
In 2018, the federal government introduced Bill C-83, an amendment to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act. The legislation was introduced after the Supreme Court of Canada found that the use of solitary confinement violated the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
5 Takeaways From the New Climate Rules for Canada’s Big Banks
Wet'suwet'en Hereditary Chief Madeek expresses frustration with Royal Bank of Canada's funding of the Coastal GasLink pipeline, one of many fossil fuel assets that will be under the microscope as part of new rules from the federal banking regulator. Credit: The Canadian Press / Nathan Denette
A Canadian watchdog says it will hold senior bankers accountable for managing climate risks during the transition away from fossil fuels
For the first time in Canada, a federal regulator is requiring the big banks and insurance companies to answer that question. And it says it will hold senior executives at these institutions accountable for how they are managing the many possible climate-related risks to their businesses, like the destruction of homes and communities from extreme weather, the worsening of public health, the devaluing of high-polluting assets by climate laws and changes in consumer practices, and environmental lawsuits. The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions delivered this message through new rules released March 7 that require federally-regulated banks, insurance companies and pension funds to publish annual data about the emissions they’re linked with, and to come up with plans to manage the risks associated with the transition away from coal, oil and gas. The five large Canadian banks have promoted different strategies to cut emissions and get clients to decarbonize, including signing on to a voluntary net-zero initiative. But all five also issued billions of dollars worth of loans and underwriting for fossil fuels in 2021, and some have pushed back against the idea that they should divest from high-polluting clients.
Here are five takeaways from the new rules:
What happens to Canadian banks and insurers in a 1.5 C world
Canadian banks will have to account for emissions from their loans
Rules come in advance of other corporate disclosure requirements
Implementation and enforcement begin next fiscal year
Rules for Canadian banks won’t tackle ‘greenwashing,’ critics argue
Joni Mitchell's Gershwin Prize Performance Was Utterly Profound
Joni Mitchell performs at DAR Constitution Hall in March 2023. image of a person's silhouette. Credit: Amanda Andrade-Rhoades/AP
The legendary singer-songwriter delivered something utterly profound during her surprise performance after accepting the Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song.
Do people still see God’s face in their oatmeal or do we only worship money now? Either way, as corny and impossible as it might be, I wish I could reach out from these keystrokes, set my hands on your shoulders, gaze deep into your retinas and tell you that when Joni Mitchell sang George Gershwin’s “Summertime” at DAR Constitution Hall earlier this month, something like God entered in the room. The circumstances were strange. Mitchell was in Washington to accept the Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song, and in the moment I’m describing, to headline at a tribute concert being filmed by PBS. Accepting her award in a satiny frock the color of the ocean and a beret the color of gold bullion, the 79-year-old colossus of song seemed a little out of sorts. Was it the implicit awkwardness of a televised exaltation or something worse? Mitchell suffered a brain aneurysm in 2015 that left her unable to speak or walk, and has since made an astonishing recovery, but as she sidled up next to the grand piano, the room held its breath.
“You had to be there” is a cruel phrase, isn’t it? We’re a storytelling species, and we spend our lives trying to share “there” with those who weren’t. We search for it in novels and “How was your day?” at dinnertime. But on a Joni Mitchell album, “there” feels like “here.” The visceral experience of hearing her most vivid songs always seems to supersede the detailed stories they’re recounting.
This is all to say that you can watch Mitchell sing “Summertime” in full on television tonight, and while I can’t promise God will visit your living room, try listening with all of your being and see who shows up.
How to Build Expertise in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Credit: UNDP Bangladesh/CC BY-NC
In a changing WASH landscape, how can professionals in the sector continue to build their expertise? Ahead of World Water Day, Devex asked the experts. Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are basic services, crucial to human and economic development. We work across the policy cycle to support governments in providing this service as effectively and efficiently as possible. Business can and should be part of the solution to the global WASH challenge, and no one organisation or sector will be able to tackle this challenge alone. Globalised operations and supply chains mean businesses are often operating where the lack of access to WASH is most serious. Women, who are disproportionately affected by a lack of WASH, in many sectors form the majority of the workforce. Business has the potential to make a significantly positive contribution.
"The Boundaries of Medicare - Public Health Care Beyond the Canada Health Act"
by Katherine Fierlbeck and Gregory P. Marchildon
Credit: Book Cover
A clear-eyed analysis of publicly funded health care that is not directly covered under the Canada Health Act.
While almost all universal health coverage in Canada is provided under the Canada Health Act, there is Medicare coverage that is provided outside of the act. This is the first book to explain the nature of these boundary health services, why they exist, and how to navigate them in practice.
The Boundaries of Medicare examines the complex range of public health care services and coverage arrangements that predate or have developed alongside the Canada Health Act. These provisions - including for workers’ compensation, military personnel and veterans, incarcerated persons, migrants, and Indigenous Peoples - are often not well understood, even by those working at policy and delivery levels. Katherine Fierlbeck and Gregory Marchildon aim to improve understanding of these boundary services: why they were established, who is eligible for them, how services are provided, how they are paid for, and how they are managed within a multilevel governance system. They also look at the dramatic increase in virtual health care services since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and their relationship to the Canada Health Act.
Explaining the origins, operations, and tensions of government-funded health care outside the Canada Health Act, The Boundaries of Medicare is an essential resource for policymakers, providers, administrators, and patients seeking to navigate Medicare in Canada.
On March 29, 2023 Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu won a historic vote at the United Nations that calls on the world’s highest court to establish for the first time the obligations countries have to address the climate crisis — and the consequences if they don’t. This year has already been rough for Vanuatu: It is currently under a six-month state of emergency after a rare pair of Category 4 cyclones pummeled the country within 48 hours during the first week of March. The islands’ residents are still picking their way through the storms’ rubble. The resolution for an advisory opinion passed by majority, backed by more than 130 countries. Two of the world’s largest climate polluters, the US and China, did not express support, but did not object meaning the measure passed by consensus. The push to seek an advisory opinion from the world’s highest court began in an environmental law class in Fiji in 2019. Cynthia Houniuhi, president of Pacific Islands Students Fighting Climate Change, said she and her peers had been looking for ways to address the climate crisis head-on through various international legal pathways, until they decided on the International Court of Justice. “To be honest, at first, I was very hesitant when this idea was discussed,” Houniuhi said. “My mind keeps telling me to back off. I mean, let’s be real here, it was too ambitious to say the least. Like, how can a small group of students from the Pacific Region convince the majority of the UN members to support this unique initiative?” But as Pacific Island nations continue to suffer from hotter temperatures and more droughts, rising sea levels, and increasingly intense cyclones, Houniuhi realized they needed to do this. “What is the use of learning all this knowledge if it’s not for people to fight the single greatest threat to their security?” she said. “For me, the memories of my childhood growing up in my village with my people are slowly fading, as the environment that sustained us disintegrates before our eyes.”
Read More At: ‘A win of epic proportions’: World’s highest court can set out countries’ climate obligations after Vanuatu secures historic UN vote
Using Quantum Technologies to Make Precise Early-stage Diagnosis
Credit: NAngelica Marie SanchezUniversity Relationss
Six University of Waterloo quantum researchers receive funding to develop their health care solutions.
Quantum science is transforming the ways technology can lead to innovation in health by improving how doctors use tools to measure and determine a health diagnosis at an early stage before symptoms progress into long-term medical issues among patients. “Quantum computing has a lot of real-world value in health, I am specifically interested in trying to use quantum devices such as sensors to measure these microscopic and nanoscopic properties in individual atoms and molecules,” says Connor Kapahi, a PhD student in Physics and Astronomy, who participated in this year’s Quantum for Health (Q4Health) Design Challenge led by Transformative Quantum Technologies (TQT).
TQT held the Q4Health Design Challenge to search for new ways that quantum technologies can advance health. A total of eight teams of 29 Waterloo students, post-doctorates, faculty and staff submitted their design ideas proving how quantum technologies can improve healthcare by monitoring in both the near and long term. Michael Reimer, a professor from the Faculty of Engineering, and his team received the Silver Award ($2.5K) for their design pitch in optical metamaterial single photon detectors to improve Raman spectroscopy for use in clinical pathology. The Q4Health design challenge was made possible by Quantum Valley Ideas Laboratory as the presenting sponsor, and Vanedge Capital as a sponsor. Visit the Transformative Quantum Technologies website to learn more about the Q4Health design challenge.
concept of evolutionary medicine was created about 40 years ago at the
University of Michigan’s Museum of Zoology when the psychiatrist Randy Nesse
walked into the office of Bill Hamilton with a new theory about senescence that
was quite wrong. The field thus had a precarious early childhood but was soon
guided into strapping adolescence by two works: the 1991 treatise ‘Dawn of
Darwinian Medicine’ by George Williams and Nesse and the 1993 book ‘Evolution
of Infectious Disease’ by Paul Ewald. A string of landmark successes followed:
a brilliant monograph on ‘Why We Get Sick’ by Nesse and Williams, an
international society, a thriving Oxford journal, a ‘Club EvMed’ seminar series
led by Charlie Nunn, and a dedicated textbook co-authored by Steve Stearns. It
was a paradigm of cross-disciplinary insights, with Randy Nesse tirelessly
rallying the troops and Darwin himself taking point. What could possibly go
I was drawn to evolutionary medicine by my
interest in human social behavior, sparked by Bill Hamilton and Dick Alexander,
which led me to the realization that autism was a disorder of evolved, adaptive
human sociality, but was studied virtually bereft of evolutionary theory. I
found that, amazingly, one could study both evolution and human disease in one
fell swoop, with hopes to both help alleviate human suffering and attempts to
make a name for oneself in the pantheons of biology. I used to
think that the future of evolutionary medicine was unconditionally bright. Now,
however, for me (as for the immortal Yogi Berra), ‘the future ain’t what it
used to be.’ An ideal future would involve evolutionary thinking becoming so
fully and deeply integrated into medicine that the field would, as a discrete
discipline, simply disappear by assimilation.
June 22-23, 2023: Positive Zero Transport Futures and Mobility Network will host the Emerging Mobility Scholars Conference at the University of Toronto. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows across Canadian institutions are invited to join in person at the University of Toronto to exchange ideas and showcase research relative to mobility and climate change.
During my years as the founding director of the Centre for International Health at the University of Toronto (2001-2009) I set up a UofT Field Station for medical, other students and residents at Kep, Cambodia on the south coast, Gulf of Thailand. We investigated, in association with the local Ministry of Health issues like malaria, dengue, TB, HIV/AIDS, food security among others. It operated for seven years and hosted about 125 students for a life changing experience. It was an honour of my life, and now also to have just returned there to remember some of the experiences, make some new ones, and meet with former staff - editor
APRIL 1-4, 2023
FAMOUS KAMPOT PEPPER
HONEY PINEAPPLE FLOWER AND FRUIT
ONE OF THE SEVERAL LOCATIONS OF THE UofT FIELD STATION, NOW A GUEST HOUSE
Publisher and Editor: Dr. David Zakus Production: Eunice Anteh, Emily Aurora Long and Julia Chalmers Social Media: Shalini Kainth, Mahdia Abidi and Ishneer Mankoo Website, Index and Advisory: Edward Milner, Carlos Jimenez, Gaël Chetaille, Evans Oppong, Jonathan Zakus, Dr. Aimée-Angélique Bouka and Elisabeth Huang
Bloggers: Edward Milner, Dr. Stephen Bezruchka, Aisha Saleem and Dr. Jay Kravitz (RIP)